Disease sexually transmitted:

Lymphogranuloma (venereal)

Perforation of the eardrum

  • What is a Perforated eardrum
  • What triggers / causes of Perforated eardrum
  • The symptoms of Perforation of the eardrum
  • Diagnosis of Perforation of the eardrum
  • Treatment of Perforation of the eardrum
  • Prevention of Perforation of the eardrum
  • Which doctors should be consulted if You have a Perforated eardrum

What is a Perforated eardrum -

About perforated eardrum say, when it has a hole or gap. The eardrum is a thin skin in the form of a funnel which separates the ear canal from the middle ear. The role of the eardrum is to transfer the vibration of the air – sound – a hammer. Its vibrations are transmitted to this hearing bone, and down the ossicular system – anvil and stapes – inner ear. In case of rupture of the tympanic membrane or the presence of holes in it its oscillations may be violated, which leads, in turn, to the hearing.
Furthermore, the presence of holes in the membrane contributes to the infection in the secondary cavity of the ear, which is fraught with its inflammation – otitis media.

What triggers / Causes Perforation of the tympanic membrane:

The causes that lead to perforate or injury of the eardrum) different. It can be inflammation in the ear, and ear injury, including noise trauma.
Causes perforation of the tympanic membrane:
1. Inflammation in the middle ear. When inflammation in the middle ear – otitis media – accumulated discharge. This discharge may be purulent. Due to the very small volume of the cavity of the middle ear and due to violations of the outflow of this discharge on the Eustachian tube (as it is in this disease also clogged), the fluid that accumulates in the middle ear cavity presses on the eardrum. In addition, the membrane is exposed and purulent fusion. In the end, they become thinner and broken. This is manifested by the office of pus from the ear. In this case, the membrane did not have a barrier function between the external environment and the middle ear.
2. Barotrauma, or acoustic trauma (lat. Baro – pressure). As mentioned above, the accumulation of liquid on the inner side of the eardrum, it can break off. However, pressure from outside of the same may lead to rupture. This happens, for example, the sudden attachment to your ear open palm, sometimes rupture of membranes can occur in flight and during lifting or lowering of the aircraft when there is a change of pressure. No wonder in such case you open your mouth or suck on candy to equalize the pressure at the eardrum, as this air through the Eustachian (auditory) tube enters the middle ear with every SIP.
3. Noise trauma. A sudden sharp noise (like an explosion) may result in rupture or perforation of the eardrum. Except for sudden hearing loss this may occur pronounced noise in the ears (tinnitus). Over time tinnitus takes place and hearing partially restored.
4. Foreign body. Sometimes when cleaning the ear canal, for example, cotton buds or other objects, the eardrum can injure. In addition, it facilitates the entry of infection into the middle ear.
Risk factors for perforation of the tympanic membrane
The risk factors that can lead to perforation or rupture of the tympanic membrane include:
- Accumulation of fluid in the middle ear.
- Self ear cleaning sulfur from solid objects (sticks, cotton wool, etc.).
- Excessive scratching in the ear due to itching in the ears.Перфорация барабанной перепонки

The symptoms of Perforation of the tympanic membrane:

Eardrum, especially in the beginning, can be quite painful. To manifestations of perforation of the tympanic membrane include:
- Sharp pain in the ear.
- Clear or purulent discharge from the ear with perforation of the ear due to otitis media.
- Bleeding from ear in traumatic nature of the perforation – a foreign body, direct trauma or noise trauma.
- Sudden decrease in pain during the breakthrough of fluid through the eardrum with otitis media.
- Hearing loss.
- Noise in the ears.
Complications perforation of the eardrum
Usually rupture or perforation of the eardrum does not pose a serious threat to the health of the patient and usually heals on its own within a few weeks.
But the complications can be:
- Hearing loss. Usually this complication temporary, and it goes on sulphur healing of the rupture of the membrane. Naturally, the larger the gap, the longer the healing and longer lasting hearing loss. In addition, the degree of hearing loss affects the location of the rupture or perforation. In severe traumatic brain injury, which is accompanied by damage to structures of the middle or inner ear, hearing loss can be severe and constant.
- Recurrent middle ear infection (chronic otitis media). Extensive membrane perforation or rupture may be accompanied by recurrent infection of the middle ear cavity, resulting in the development of chronic inflammation. This may contribute to permanent hearing loss.

Diagnosis of Perforation of the tympanic membrane:

For the diagnosis of perforation of the membrane is held otoscopy. To do this, the doctor inserts into the ear of a metal or plastic funnel. Next, the auricle of the patient is drawn upwards and backwards. This technique allows both to align the course of the auditory canal, resulting in the end becomes visible eardrum. Into the ear canal goes light. When perforation is noted the hole in the eardrum. When the gap may even be visible to the ossicles of the middle ear. In addition, depending on the causes of rupture or perforation in the lumen of the auditory canal may be blood or pus. If there is pus, the doctor takes a loop through a small amount for analysis and identification of the pathogen and determine the effectiveness of antibiotics.
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Perforation of the eardrum

Treatment of Perforation of the tympanic membrane:

In most cases, perforation of the eardrum heals spontaneously without complications within a few weeks. if the eardrum healing does not occur, treatment is necessary.
1. Patch the eardrum. If there is a small tear or perforation your doctor may close its so-called paper patch. Before that, the edges of the gap are treated with the drug to stimulate growth, after which the fracture is applied to paper patch. Such procedures may require three to four to close the gap.
2. Surgeonwith on-demand treatment. In the case of a larger volume of rupture or perforation of the membrane and the ineffectiveness of the above method may require surgical intervention. The operation to restore the integrity of the eardrum is called a tympanoplasty or myringoplasty. The operation is performed under General anesthesia. The surgeon holds in his ear a small skin incision. Is taken from it a thin flap of skin. It is used for stitching the hole in the eardrum. Into the ear canal, the surgeon injects a special microscope and further, the whole operation is performed through the ear canal. The eardrum is lifted and the flap is placed to the hole in it. On both sides of the membrane are stacked special resorbable materials, which help to keep the flap in position until he is fully healed. In a few weeks, this material is completely dissolved. Into the ear canal sets the pellet moistened with antibiotic for a period of three to four weeks, unless there is a complete engraftment of the graft to the eardrum.
For the first time after surgery may experience some pain and discomfort. In addition, it is recommended not to blow your nose and not make any sudden pulling movement through the nose. This is because on the back wall of the nasopharynx has openings of auditory (Eustachian) tubes, which connect the cavity of the nasopharynx to the tympanic cavity. The role of these tubes is to equalize pressure in it. At sharp movements of air in the nasopharynx, the pressure in the tympanic cavity may be increased, which causes movement of the tympanic membrane, and this, in turn, could bias the flap and a violation of recovery.
Surgical closure of the perforation in the membrane leads to:
- To prevent falling into the middle ear water during showering, bathing, or swimming, and consequently to prevent the development of infection in it.
- Improve your hearing.
- Eliminate tinnitus.
- Prevention of occurrence in the ear special Kista – the cholesteatoma, which leads to chronic infection in the middle ear.

Prevention of Perforation of the tympanic membrane:

Prevention of perforation of the tympanic membrane
- Timely treatment of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear. If You show signs of inflammation of the middle ear: the constant dull pain, tinnitus and hearing loss – you should consult a doctor and not to self-medicate.
The delay of timely treatment can lead to the accumulation of fluid in the middle ear and perforation of eardrums.
- Ear protection during flight. If You have a cold or if You have allergic reaction, it is desirable to refrain from flying. In addition, during the flight it is recommended to wear protective headphones or chew gum or suck on candy.
- Try not to use to clean the ears of sulfur from sharp objects, as they can easily injure the eardrum.
- Avoid excessive noise.

Which doctors should be consulted if You have a Perforated eardrum:

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