Disease sexually transmitted:

Early congenital syphilis

Anencephaly

Анэнцефалия
Anencephaly

Infants who are born with this condition, there are no specific parts of the brain, and other parts covered with a cloth, and remain in their infancy.
This pathology is characterized by the fact that the newborn has no both hemispheres of the brain. Sometimes the missing tissue of the cerebral hemispheres replaces the abnormal tissue from another part of the brain.
Although these reflexes, like breathing, response to sound and tactile response may be present, but the mental part remains undeveloped. The body of a child develops normally.

Anomaly Arnold-Chiari Malformation

Аномалия Арнольда-Киари
Anomaly Arnold-Chiari Malformation

In 1891 Chiari (Chiari) identified four types of anomalies with their detailed presentation. This classification physicians are present.
1. Anomaly Arnold-Chiari malformation type I is a prolapse of posterior fossa structures in the spinal canal below the plane of foramen Magnum.
2. When anomalies Arnold-Chiari type II - occurs caudal dislocation of lower segments of worm, the medulla oblongata and fourth ventricle, often develop hydrocephalus.
3. Anomaly Arnold-Chiari type III is rare, characterized by gross caudal displacement of all the structures of the posterior cranial fossa.

Congenital hydrocephalus

Врожденная гидроцефалия
Congenital hydrocephalus

The most noticeable symptom of hydrocephalus is unusually large head, it is noticeable at birth or in the first 9 months of life. It should also be noted that in the first years of life the baby's head is very much increased. That is why doctors can start to worry only when the head size increases faster than the child grows and gains weight. Also soft places on the head (fontanel) may harden or bulge outward.

Developmental defects of the neural tube

Дефекты развития нервной трубки
Developmental defects of the neural tube

Although the relationship of heredity and frequency of spinal hernias pointed out by the researchers of the XIX century, the true interest of geneticists to this problem have emerged in the last decades of the twentieth century.
Currently the concept of "spinal dysraphia" unites various developmental disorders of the spinal cord and spine:
- spina bifida occulta - hidden cleft spine-
- spina bifida cystica uverta - open spina bifida with formation of cystic spina bifida-
- rhachischiasis posterior (totalis et partialis) - splitting of the spine and soft tissues with the spreading of the spinal cord that occur throughout the spine, or only in some parts.

Diastematomyelia

Диастематомиелия
Diastematomyelia

Clinical manifestations of diastematomyelia combines the features of primary myelodysplasia and symptom that develops as the child grows, in the process destroying the natural proximal migration of the spinal cord in its fixing partition.
Noticeable at an early age (before 3 years) spinal deformity researchers met in 62 cases. Prevailed scoliotic deformity (42), kyphosis and kyphoscoliosis deformation was less frequent (20)

Encephalocele

Энцефалоцеле
Encephalocele

Less than 25 cases the hernia protrudes through the front of the skeleton, usually in the forehead or between the eyes (both of these forms are called frontal hernia of the brain). If the encephalocele is located in the forehead, it can shift the orbit, resulting in in patients with wide-set eyes. If the anomaly is located between the eyes, we observed the expansion of the bridge of the nose, although sometimes a hernia can only be noticed in the study of the nasal passages, that is, outside the defect is completely invisible. Often mistaken for a hernia nasal polyp (see polyp), the result is a wrong diagnosis and hernia of the brain remains unrecognized.

Iniencephaly

Иниэнцефалия
Iniencephaly

H. Lewis singled out two main groups: iniencephaly slit, with the formation of brain herniation, and iniencephaly closed, in which there is damage to the spine in the absence of brain herniation. The frequency of pathology ranges: 0,1-10:10,000 and above, depending on the possibilities of diagnostics of a syndrome. Iniencephaly more common among female fetuses - M:F=1:104.
This pathology differs from anencephaly is iniencephaly closed anterior part of the brain tube. Microscopic examination of the brain reveals a number of anomalies, "including microencephaly, polymicrogyria, heterotopic glial tissue in the meninges, atresia ventricular system, pronounced disorganization of the brain stem and the spinal cord tissue, large cerebellar cyst".

Megalocephaly

megalotsefaliya
megalotsefaliya

Cephalonia (SYN.: microencephaly, megalocephaly) – unusual increase in mass and dimensions of the brain, accompanied by disturbances of the location of the brain, changes in the cytoarchitectonics of the cortex, lesions of heterotopias in the white matter, enlarged skull.
Cephalonia (megalocephaly) - increase the weight and size of the brain more than 2 standard deviations, which is accompanied by violation of the position and size of the convolutions, changes in the cytoarchitectonics of the cerebral cortex and neuronal heterotopias in the white matter, as well as frequent anomalies of the cerebellum and cerebrospinal fluid pathways.

Microcephaly

Микроцефалия
Microcephaly

The mass of the brain in microcephaly is dramatically reduced, sometimes up to 500 - 600 g. In the brain show signs of gross malformations: the macro and microgyria, lissencephaly, agentii corpus callosum, heterotopia. Especially reduced frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, so the island remains undisguised. Convolutions flattened, there are no tertiary gyrus and sulcus. The basal ganglia compared with the cerebral cortex is more developed.

Spina bifida

Spina bifida (спина бифида)
Spina bifida (spina bifida)

Doctors distinguish three forms of spina bifida:
- Spina bifida occulta. Often this form is called "hidden spina bifida" because in this case the spinal cord and nerve roots were normal, and there is no defect in the back. This form is characterized by only a small defect or gap in the vertebrae that form the spinal column. Often this form of pathology is so mild that does not cause any worries. At this stage, patients are not even aware of the presence of this malformation and learn about it only after radiography.

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