Disease sexually transmitted:

Candidiasis urogenital organs (thrush) in women

Cancer of the uterus

  • What is Cancer of the uterus
  • What triggers / causes of cervical Cancer
  • Pathogenesis (what is happening) at the time of Cancer of the uterus
  • Symptoms of Cancer of the uterus
  • Diagnosis of uterine Cancer
  • Treatment of cervical Cancer
  • Prevention of cervical Cancer
  • Which doctors should be consulted if You have Cancer of the uterus

What is Cancer of the uterus -

Uterine cancer is very common, occupying at the present time, women fourth after breast cancer, skin and gastrointestinal tract. This form of malignant tumors is usually observed at the age from 40 to 60 years.

What triggers / causes of cervical Cancer:

Risk factors of uterine cancer , diabetes, hypertension, Smoking, infection with human papilloma virus, HIV, early sexual debut, late menopause and menstrual irregularities, infertility, a large number of sexual partners, early first childbirth, venereal disease, intake of oral contraceptives.
One of the risk factors is obesity: women with a body weight exceeding the normal 10-25 kg, the risk of developing endometrial cancer is 3 times higher than at normal body weight, and women with excess body weight more than 25 kg the risk of disease 9 times higher.
Widely known precancerous conditions, play a significant role in causing cancer. This erosion, ulcers, scars after birth trauma, epithelium (warts, polyps) and leukoplakia, and chronic inflammatory processes - endocervicitis and endometritis.

Pathogenesis (what is happening) at the time of cervical Cancer:

Accordingly the nature of the epithelium of the various divisions of the uterus distinguish between squamous and glandular cervical cancer (adenocarcinoma) of the cervical canal and uterine cavity. Adenocarcinoma - the main morphological variant (70). Should indicate that a relatively rare tumor, affecting the uterus, is a sarcoma. There are three degrees of tumor differentiation (well-differentiated, usernotification and undifferentiated).
For cancer of the uterus there are 4 stages of development: stage 1 - the location of the tumor in the body of the uterus, stage II - the defeat of the body and cervix, stage III - spread to parametersyou tissue or metastases in the vagina, stage IV - spread outside of the pelvis, the germination of the bladder or rectum.

The symptoms of cervical Cancer:

Clinical symptoms of cancer of the uterine bodyconsists of complaints of leucorrhoea, bleeding and pain. However, all these three symptoms arise in the period of disintegration of the tumor and the time of their appearance depends on the time of the beginning of ulceration. Therefore, in some cases over a long period of uterine cancer may not produce any symptoms.
Early stage cancer of the uterine body are usually accompanied by Muco-purulent secretions that cause itching and irritation that can occur after exercise, shaking, urinating and spotting which can be scarce or abundant, constant or intermittent. The symptoms can be irregular menstrual periods, increase or decrease the duration of menstruation, frequent urination and pain during urination (this means that the tumor started to grow in the bladder).
Whites are of different nature: watery, slimy, stained with blood, no smell and stench. The blood gives Belem kind of meat slops. The delay of the secretions in the vagina and acceding infection leads to the appearance of purulent whiter with the smell. When cancer stage III and IV discharge from the genital tract are putrid character. Bleeding may be a little bleeding, as well as single or multiple profuse blood loss. For cervical cancer is very typical of the so-called contact bleeding (during sexual intercourse, douching, vaginal examination, or after lifting weights). If the woman already stopped menstruating, bleeding from the vagina in most cases is a sign of a malignant tumor.
Pain is a late symptom indicating the involvement in the cancer process lymph nodes and tissue of the pelvis with the formation of infiltrates, compressing nerve trunks and plexuses. Common symptoms and, in particular, cachexia (loss of body mass) occur very late, in very advanced stages, and usually women suffering from cancer of the uterus, remain outwardly blooming, healthy look.

Diagnosis of uterine Cancer:

Recognition of cervical cancer begin with a study of patient complaints and course of disease. All suspicious on the history of cases, patients are subject to immediate examination by a gynecologist. It is unacceptable to appoint any treatment of such patients without detailed examination.
The survey includes vaginal bimanual examination, bimanual rectal examination and inspection with the help of mirrors.
When vaginal study in cases of pronounced tumor process can determine certain changes in the cervix depending on the type of tumor growth (exophytic, endophytic, and mixed). Typically, the study is accompanied by bleeding as a result of injury to the tumor exploring finger. In disseminated cancer of the uterus is additionally conducting a study through the rectum to clarify the transition of a tumor on the wall of the pelvis and the Sacro-uterine ligaments.
For the detection of early stages of cervical cancer should not be limited to vaginal study - be sure to conduct inspection with the help of mirrors. To detect early forms of cancer in all cases of certain changes on the cervix take smears for cytological examination or biopsy. With suspected cancer of the cervical canal or uterine cavity hold separate diagnostic curettage of the cervical canal and uterine cavity and subsequent histological examination.
All of these studies can be performed in the clinic with the necessary tools and compliance with the rules of asepsis. To illustrate the importance of a comprehensive survey is sufficient to indicate that cervical cancer remains undiagnosed in more than half of the patients, examination of which consisted only in bimanual vaginal examination. At the same time when viewed with the help of mirrors the number of errors in diagnosis can be reduced by up to 5 times, and when using the biopsy they are observed only in a few cases.
In recent times, the wide distribution and great importance is given to diagnostic ultrasound (ultrasonography), allowing to detect changes in the uterus are inaccessible to other methods of investigation and became the mandatory method of research if you suspect any of benign and malignant tumors in the uterus.
To establish lymph node lesions and metastases that often accompanies cervical cancer, have resorted to x-ray methods - lymphography and reocovery. With the same purpose, conduct x-rays of the chest, intravenous pyelography, ergography, cystoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. Perhaps a CT, MRI, lymphangiography, tumor biopsy with a thin needle.
These studies are very important for cancer of the uterus plan radiotherapy or combined treatment.
Cancer of the uterus

Treatment of cervical Cancer:

Tactics of treatment of cervical cancer depends on the patient's age, General condition and clinical stage of cancer. Treatment is mainly surgical (hysterectomy with appendages and sometimes removal of pelvic lymph nodes). Perhaps a combination treatment - surgery, radiation and then remote to the area of the vaginal stump, intracavitary gamma-therapy. Performed, and preoperative radiation therapy mainly in stage III. Radiation therapy as an independent method is used when the local prevalence of tumor process, with contraindications for surgery. Antineoplastic effective in low-grade tumors in stages III and IV disease.
In cervical cancer with the same success the treatment is carried out as the method of concomitant radiation therapy, and surgical (extended hysterectomy with appendages). Treatment depends on the stage of the disease. In stage Ia (microinvasive cancer) produce a hysterectomy with appendages. In stage IB (cancer limited to the cervix) is shown remote or intracavitary irradiation with subsequent extended hysterectomy with appendages, or, conversely, produce first operation, and then the remote gammarae. In stage II (involving the upper part of the vagina, a transition to the body of the uterus and infiltration parameters without switching on the walls of the pelvis), the main treatment is radiation, surgery is rarely used. In stage III (transition to the lower part of the vagina, infiltration parameters with the transition to the pelvis) shows radiation therapy. Finally, at stage IV (transition to the bladder, rectum, or distant metastasis) apply only palliative radiation. In the later stages of symptomatic treatment, may use chemotherapy treatment.
After treatment, mandatory periodic visits to the doctor for examination of the pelvic organs and swabs. Also, studies include x-ray chest, ultrasonography and intravenous pyelography. In the first year of visiting the doctor every 3 months, then within 5 years - every 6 months. After 5 years, the control is carried out annually.
In return, if the process is localized, conduct partial or total pelvic exenteration (removal of a single block of the uterus, cervix, vagina, parameters, bladder and rectum). In the presence of distant metastases, patients usually receive chemotherapy. Radiation therapy can be used for palliative treatment of painful metastases.
The most commonly uterine cancer metastasizes to the pelvic lymph nodes, at least in his groin. Distant metastases were more frequent in the kidneys, liver, lungs, have a poor prognosis.
The prognosis of cancer of the uterus.
For cancer of the uterus the 5-year survival after surgical treatment from 84 to 45 depending on the stage of the disease. When relapse 25 patients initially exposed to surgical treatment, can be rid of recurrence of the disease using radiotherapy of pelvic organs. When metastatic relapse cures are extremely rare, and the therapeutic effect of individual and short-lived. In stage IV disease, the 5-year survival rate up to 9.

Prevention of cervical Cancer:

Early diagnosis and prevention of cervical cancer is possible only through systematic preventive examinations of all women older than 30 years (at least 2 times per year). Regular check-UPS it is advisable to start with the beginning of sexual life. Regular checkups, ultrasound imaging and cytological examination (every 2 years) facilitate the identification of precancerous diseases and their treatment, cancer prevention.
Equally important is the timely and proper treatment of precancerous cervical disease. Particularly characteristic features inherent only in precancerous cervical disease, no, they occur as a normal inflammatory diseases. Common to petracovich disease symptoms are prolonged chronic course, the constancy of the symptoms, and most importantly the lack of effect of conservative (anti-inflammatory) treatment. Treatment of precancerous cervical disease should be radical and is electroscission, electrocoagulation of affected areas or even amputation of the cervix. Also resorting to radiation therapy in the form of application radium therapy. Among patients radically treated for a variety of precancerous lesions, mortality from cervical cancer has decreased in 6 times.

Which doctors should be consulted if You have Cancer of the uterus:


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