Disease sexually transmitted:

Anogenital warts (condyloma)

Prostate cancer (prostate)

  • What is prostate Cancer (prostate)
  • What triggers / causes of Cancer of the prostate gland (prostate)
  • Pathogenesis (what is happening) during prostate Cancer (prostate)
  • Symptoms of Cancer of the prostate (prostate)
  • Cancer diagnosis prostate Cancer (prostate)
  • The treatment for prostate Cancer (prostate)
  • Prevention of prostate Cancer (prostate)
  • Which doctors should be consulted if You have Cancer of the prostate (prostate)

What is Cancer of prostate gland (prostate) -

Prostate cancer (prostate) usually occurs in men older than 50-60 years. In young age it is rare. With the exception of sarcoma of the prostate. This rare disease affects young people and even occurs in childhood and adolescence that is associated with embryonic etiology of the tumor. The probability of prostate cancer detection in men aged 40 to 59 years is 1:78 (1,28), aged 60 to 79 years - 1:6 (15,6 ). Overall, about 3 men have a chance of dying from prostate cancer.In the structure of oncological diseases of a number of countries prostate cancer is the 2-3rd place, and in the 1st place. In the UK prostate cancer took 2nd place among all cancers in men. Prostate cancer takes 2nd place after melanoma of the skin, significantly outperforming malignant disease of the lung and stomach.

What triggers / causes of Cancer of the prostate gland (prostate):

Among the etiological causes of cancer of the prostate secrete genetic predisposition, progressive prostatic hyperplasia and the effect of carcinogenic factors. It is noted that prostate cancer is much more common in Europeans and Americans, rather than the peoples of the Asian continent. Today it is difficult to determine what caused it: the nature of power, national culture, lifestyle, or something else. There is evidence that eating saturated animal fats and rich in calories, contributes to the development and progression of prostate cancer. The highest risk of developing this disease in men who consume large quantities of milk, cheese, eggs and meat. Much rarer are vegetarians. Marked inhibitory effects of soy and rice diet, and regular long-term use of vitamin E (a-tocopherol). The low content of some trace elements (selenium, zinc) increases the risk of cancer of the prostate.The pathogenesis of the disease is largely determined by the function of sexual glands and the concentration of male sex hormones (androgens) in the blood serum. However, sexual activity does not affect the risk of developing prostate cancer. Androgens are stimulants of growth, development and functional activity of the gland is normal. With age in men in the prostate gland increases production of the enzyme 5-a reductase responsible for conversion of testosterone to DHT, which leads to increasing levels in the tissues of the gland. DHT, in turn, induces in prostatic cells the synthesis of insulin-like growth factor. Formed in sufficient quantity dihydrotestosterone and insulin-like growth factor act autocrine on stromal cell, and also by paracrine reach the epithelial cells of the prostate gland, strengthening them in the RNA synthesis of proteins. Thus, elevated levels of dihydrotestosterone in the prostate could be one of the triggers of both benign and malignant hyperplastic processes. With the opening of the LDC gene 1 (hereditary prostate cancer 1) on chromosome 1 is proved the aptitude of a person wearing this gene, and cancer of the prostate.Depending on the shape, nature of the arrangement of glandular structures in the tumor and the ratio of epithelial and connective tissue components histologically distinguish several types of cancer. If prostate cancer arises from the glandular epithelium, it is called adenocarcinoma, if from squamous epithelium - squamous. Tubular cancer develops from narrow canals lined by epithelium (cuboidal or prismatic), the lumen of which may be secret. Alveolar cancer occurs due to the limit of the departments of branching glands. This so-called differentiated forms of cancer.Cancer is the most frequently (90 ) develops from the peripheral parts of the prostate, while hyperplasia - Central and transitory zones. In 5-25 of the observed combination of cancer and prostatic hyperplasia.

Pathogenesis (what is happening) during prostate Cancer (prostate):

Metastasis. In the early stages of prostate cancer occurs only locally, metastases cannot be found. In the future, with the progression of tumor lymphatic metastasis of prostate cancer detected in the regional pelvic and retroperitoneal lymph nodes along the abdominal aorta. Prostate cancer is particularly prone to multiple lesions of the bones (spine, pelvis, hip and rib). There are also metastases in the lungs and pleura, soft tissues and liver.

Symptoms of Cancer of the prostate (prostate):

Clinical signs are not specific only to this disease of the symptoms. Symptoms is frequent urination at night, difficulty urinating first night, and then during the day, the feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder, the increase of the amount of residual urine. These symptoms are so similar to the pattern of hypertrophy and prostatic adenoma, also affecting men in old age, in the early stages of cancer to distinguish these diseases is almost impossible. Only in the future when cancer appears hematuria and join pains due to germination of the bladder tumor and tissue of the pelvis. In parallel, growing cachexia (progressive weight loss). Stage I: no clinical manifestations, diagnosis is accidentally deleted by morphological study of adenomas. Stage II: dysuria and other symptoms of illness no - rectal reveal a tight knot in the gland - diagnosis is established by biopsy of the metastases are rare in this step. Stage III: frequent urination, hematuria, other symptoms - tumor invades seminal vesicles, bladder base and lateral walls of the pelvis biopsy confirms the diagnosis in half of the cases are metastases to pelvic and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Stage IV: the tumor often of large dimensions with severe dysuric disorders - the main characteristic of this stage is the presence of metastases in bone and other organs. In the serum in 70 cases showed high level of acid phosphatase.

Diagnosis of Cancer of the prostate (prostate):

Diagnosis of early lesions of the prostate remains difficult. The diagnosis is based only on the disease, and by feeling the prostate through the rectum. Digital rectal examination is the main method of diagnosis of prostate cancer. The differential diagnosis spend with prostate cancer. A confident diagnosis of cancer can be made only when significant the gland's size, density, and tuberosity. Before these overt signs of cancer is hard to distinguish from age-related hypertrophy of the gland. Only 10 of prostate tumors detected during digital examination of its focal seals, quite limited and amenable to effective treatment. The remaining cases are neglected cancers. Often prostate cancer is detected during the clinical examination of patients with bone metastases. The diagnosis is established by needle biopsy of the prostate performed through the rectum, perineum, or urethra. The assumption about the diagnosis can be made on the basis of ultrasound tomography. In cases of cancer germinating capsule of the prostate found increased activity of acid phosphatase. In patients with distant metastases this figure increased to more than 80 cases. As a diagnostic marker to determine the serum prostate specific antigen, but possible false-positive results. Radioisotope bone scan, radiography, excretory urography, computed tomography of the pelvis and retroperitoneum can detect metastases in the most frequently affected organs.
Prostate cancer (prostate)

The treatment for prostate Cancer (prostate):

Radical treatment for prostate cancer by surgery is possible only in the early stages, for small localized tumors. Sorry, actually only 10 cancers of the prostate can be treated by surgical intervention. In this case, applying radical prostatectomy. When pronounced clinical picture of the tumor essentially inoperable. Therefore, in patients With stage III-IV recommended the removal of the testicles in combination with hormone therapy female sex hormones. Widely resorted to hormone treatment sinestrolom. The treatment course is long, many months. The purpose of these hormones increase the survival rate and at the same time (with high doses and prolonged use) cause an increase in the frequency of cardiovascular complications (stroke, myocardial infarction, thrombosis, embolism, circulatory failure), it is appropriate only when expressed disorders of urination, intense pain in the bones, etc. This kind of hormone therapy gives a known percentage of cases of persistent remission, relieving the patients from the excruciating pain and disorders of urination. Palliative (not curative, but facilitates the patient's condition) the importance of radiation therapy on the prostate and areas of metastatic bone lesions with a sharp pain syndrome and the risk of compression of the urethra. Irradiation is also used in persons who wish to preserve sexual activity. As a method of endocrine treatment of pituitary irradiation is used in order to turn off its function. In marked compression of the urethra to empty my bladder through a catheter, and at impossibility of catheterization impose suprapubic fistula.Forecast. Prostate cancer prognosis is often poor due to late detection and early occurrence of multiple metastases. Unfortunately about 90 cancers prostate cancer detected in stage III - IV. Radical prostatectomy conducted in the early stage of cancer in patients aged younger than 70 provides 10-15-year survival rate. In General, after treatment 5-year survival rate for stage I-II is 85, stage III -50, stage IV - 20.

Prevention of prostate Cancer (prostate):

Need for early detection of disease, which contributes to preventive (1 year) rectal examination, which should be carried out every man over 40. In all doubtful cases shows the passage of ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs.

Which doctors should be consulted if You have Cancer of the prostate (prostate):

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